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Terrington - A History of the Parish by Mary B. Dymond (1964)

The Manuscript of this booklet was given by Mr. P. G. A. Clementson to the Committee of Terrington Village Hall which financed the cost of publication (£l00). The text is reproduced below, with kind permission of the Committee of Terrington Village Hall.

Numbers in brackets refer to the list of references at the end of each chapter.



The village of Terrington lies in the North Riding of Yorkshire. 13 miles N.N.E. of the city of York. It is situated in the Howardian Hills, quite close to the impressive escarpment overlooking the Vale of York. These hills form a line running N.W.-S.E., three to four miles wide and about 15 miles long, nowhere exceeding a height of 600 ft. They separate the Vale of York from the Vale of Pickering, and act also as a bridge of higher ground between the extensive North Yorkshire Moors (to the N.) and the chalk downland of the Yorkshire Wolds (to the S.E.).

The Howardians, named after Castle Howard and the Howard family, provide a hilly and intimate landscape covered by villages, fields, extensive woodland and patches of heath. Geologically these hills are composed in the main of Jurassic limestone, and the irregular, broken scenery has been largely determined by an intricate series of faults or slips in the underlying rocks.(1) This natural setting and its human exploitation has produced a small region of great charm and interest.

This well-drained, albeit broken, ridge attracted human settlement and traffic long before the foundation of the present day villages. Many prehistoric burial mounds survive. with a notable concentration in the Yearsley area. These probably date in the main from the 2nd and 3rd millennia B.C.. and in the course of time many others will have since disappeared. The settlements where prehistoric communities lived were probably near the burial mounds, but generally leave behind no visible earthworks. In Terrington parish the sites of two burial mounds, both probably Bronze Age, are recorded. There is little doubt that in prehistoric times the Howardians were a route-way between the Wolds and the Hambleton Hills, both of which were important centres of population. The same obtains during the Roman period, for a road leading N.W. from the fort and settlement of Malton followed the northern edge of the Howardians (through Appleton-le-Street and Hovingham, where there was a villa).

The village of Terrington lies in the head of a small valley draining E., just behind the S.W. escarpment of the Howardians. Most of the village lies between the 250 ft. and 350 ft. contours. The plan is a fairly tight, nucleated one. The main axis is the village street running E. to W. and sloping to the E. On each side of this main street is a parallel back lane, built no doubt to serve the backs of the houses in the main street, and now also serving newer properties on each side. At the W. and upper end of the village is a small triangular green now occupied by a large formal tree-ring called the plump. The main street turns N. to leave the plump, and then after a few yards runs again westwards.

This double right-angled manoeuvre was necessitated by the triangular plan of the plump; to have carried straight on would have broken the W. side. The church lies towards the lower end of the village, yet on a commanding ridge to the N. of the main street. From the main street there are side roads serving Mowthorpe to the S.E., Wiganthorpe to the N.W. and leading down the escarpment to the S.W. Where the Mowthorpe Road joins the main street a triangular space, now occupied by buildings, originally contained the village pond. In part therefore, Terrington can be said to be a 'street' village' with its main E.W. axis, and in part also a 'green-village'. There is little doubt that its general shape and street pattern are its oldest elements, dating in all probability from the Anglian colonization of the district in the 6th to 8th centuries.

To the visitor approaching in either direction along the main road, Terrington is very attractive. Coming from the W. one suddenly and surprisingly bumps into the plump at the head of the village. From the E., however, the appeal is quite different; one slowly becomes conscious of the long vista of the main street, as one climbs the gradual hill. To complete and block the view, at the head of the slope is the plump with its splendid tree-ring. Without the 'green' the main street would be comparatively empty and without focus.

The majority of the houses are stone-built with red pantiled roofs and brick chimneys. The stone varies in colour from cream to reddish brown, and is all local. The house frontages are all the more attractive for being at different levels and depths. Most houses are parallel to the street but some are set at right angles to it. There is usually a small sloping grass bank in front of the houses, for the street is in the bottom of the small valley and has also been further hollowed out by traffic before the days of hard metalling. To provide further variation, some houses give access directly to the verge without any formal front garden. Regrettably, modern wires, posts and aerials have not improved the village's attractions.

The stylistic simplicity of the domestic buildings of Terrington make close dating impossible, but it seems unlikely that anything survives from earlier than the 17th century. A long, low cottage on the S.E. side of the 'green' may, for example, be 17th century, but without an elaborate architectural analysis, the outside appearance is not sufficient evidence. The vast majority of the houses and cottages seem to date from the 18th and 19th centuries. Of these, among the most striking are The Lodge, a pleasant late 18th or early 19th century house on the S. side of the ‘green', and Terrington Hall (now a Boys' Preparatory School) which is a severe but elegant villa of 1827.

The most important building in the parish is the church of All Saints. Although not large or of great architectural refinement, it has an interesting fabric incorporating elements from Saxon times onwards. A brief guide has already been published, and is available in the church.(2) No more than a brief description of its architectural history is therefore necessary here, together with a few additional points not covered by the guide.

The remarkable S. wall of the Saxon church, with its herring-bone masonry and re-used grave slab, has been stressed before.(3) This church had an aisleless nave, no doubt with tall, narrow proportions and lit by small splayed windows high on each side. The Saxon grave slab, with intricate interlace carving, was re-used lop-sidedly as the external triangular head of one of these windows. There is a small external chamfer on this, the only window to survive, and a deep internal splay. Nothing survives of the Saxon chancel. The date of this church is probably early 11th century.

In the 12th century the structure was drastically remodelled. The N. wall was pierced by a two-arch Norman arcade, and a N. aisle added beyond. The present N. aisle is substantially the original Norman addition, although its windows were replaced in the 15th century. The chancel was rebuilt, and of its fabric a little survives. On the outside of the S. chancel wall, under the later 15th century masonry, is the base of the Norman wall, showing as large rectangular blocks with characteristic diagonal tooling. From this evidence it seems that the Norman chancel was square, with its E. wall about 9 ft. E. of the present doorway on the S. side.

In the 14th century the Stapleton chantry chapel was added on the S. side of the nave. Of this structure only the elegant arch through the nave wall survives. In post-Reformation times this chapel was demolished, and the archway turned into a window. In 1868 the present small S. aisle was built and the archway reconstituted.

In the 15th century, as is common in English village churches, there was much activity. The present chancel, at least the third on the site, was built; clerestory windows were added on the S. side of the nave, new windows inserted into the N. aisle and the N. aisle extended to form a N. chapel. The present tower also seems to date from this period.

The tower needs a full-scale detailed survey before its whole history can be given with confidence. The tower-arch into the nave, pointed, lofty and plain, is difficult to date. It may even be 12th century, in which case there was a contemporary tower. The W. doorway into the tower is again so featureless as to make dating hazardous; the triangular structure above the door may be simply a crude relieving-arch. The W. buttresses which are deep, strong, and set diagonally, are almost certainly 15th century. The curious E. buttresses are small and clasping, with an apparently Norman flavour, whatever their date.

The radical restoration of 1868 completed the structure and provided most of the present fittings and decoration. At the present time, the church is well cared for, and continues to be a focus (if not the only one) of religious life in the parish, as it has been for nearly a thousand years.(4)

The nonconformist chapels also have their interest. Both the Wesleyan and Primitive Methodist chapels, the one almost hidden away N. of the parish church and the other in Mowthorpe Lane, are attractive for their utter humility and functionalism. The first is still well-cared for but the second is unfortunately in decay.

The parish of Terrington, which originally contained the modern civil parish of Ganthorpe, was a large one of 3,630 acres. Its boundaries, which were probably settled in Saxon times, often follow natural features like Ings Beck and Bulmer Beck to the S., and tributaries of Wath Beck to the N. They were drawn to include not only potential arable land, but also rough woodland and heath, ings or meadow, streams for water-supply and peat-diggings.

The three subsidiary townships in the parish have all fared differently since medieval times. Ganthorpe survives as a small hamlet, Mowthorpe has decayed, and Wiganthorpe was deliberately replaced by an 18th century mansion and park.

Ganthorpe lies about one mile E. of Terrington, and now in its own civil parish. It is sited on the N. face of a ridge, giving extensive views over pleasant, undulating farmland and woodland. It now consists of three farms and several cottages, built of local stone. Ganthorpe Hall is a handsome 18th century house, with later additions. Its external proportions, including a doorway and moulded window frames, are particularly pleasing. The outbuildings include a dovecote.(5)

Mowthorpe can be classed as a deserted village.(6) As a settlement, it has completely decayed, and is only represented by slight earthworks. Modern farms preserve the name, 1½ miles S.E. of Terrington.

Wiganthorpe lies one mile N.N.W. of Terrington. The township and its fields (7) were replaced in the mid-l8th century by a mansion, which was by far the largest in the parish. Only one wing of the building now survives. Original designs by John Carr (1723-1807), the eminent York architect, survive in the Victoria and Albert Museum. London.(8) No surviving earthworks of the village are recorded; they are highly unlikely to survive, as Wiganthorpe Park was extensively landscaped with plantations, drives and ponds. Today even the Park has lost its former magnificence; modern machinery, lack of upkeep and the felling of trees have all contributed to its near destruction.

The interpretation of place-name evidence is notoriously uncertain, but an interesting racial pattern seems to emerge in Terrington parish. The name Terrington is Anglian or English, and probably means the 'settlement of Teofer'. There is some doubt about the actual form of the personal name, but there is little doubt that it was the name of the leading Anglian personality of the district, probably at the time that the village was founded. The three subsidiary townships towards the edges of the parish were probably later creations, for all have Scandinavian names. Ganthorpe means Galm's village and Mowthorpe Mulli's village. Wiganthorpe, unlike the others, does not contain a personal name, for it means Viking's village. The evidence thus suggests that the original English inhabitants of the parish came to accept Scandinavian neighbours in their parish in the 8th or 9th centuries, and the two races lived side by side, though in distinct settlements.(9)


1. British Regional Geology: the Pennines and adjacent areas (Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1954).

2. All Saints' Church, Terrington (undated).

3. J. E. Morris, The N. Riding of Yorkshire (1920), 374.

4. The writer is grateful to Dr. B. A. Gee for his comments on the architecture of the church.

5. The writer is grateful to Mr. and Mrs. I. Duncan for permission to look over the house.

6. M. W. Beresford, The Lost Villages of Yorks., part iv (Y.A.J. 1954), 303.

7. Ibid., 308.

8. V. & A. Museum, 93 H 23.

9. Place Names of N.R. (E.P.N.S. v).


The descent of the ownership of the manors within the parish can be found in the Victoria County History, North Riding, vol ii.

The earliest description of the holding of land in Terrington occurs in 1086 in Domesday Book, that great land survey covering nearly the whole of England, made at the order of William I for largely fiscal purposes. Terrington, along with many other places in the north of England, had been wasted by the Conqueror's army in 1069-70 as a reprisal for the Northern rebellions. The manor of Terrington contained three carucates six bovates of land in Terrington and Wiganthorpe, and due to the wasting was probably no longer worth its pre-Conquest value of 10s. In Wiganthorpe there was a manor with one carucate of land; some of this was arable — enough for half a plough team of oxen to cultivate. There was half a carucate of land belonging to the manor at Ganthorpe. Mowthorpe township and its lands appear to have been 'socland' of Terrington manor, and as such would not be subject to such strict jurisdiction and customs as the rest of the holdings within the manor. There was other land in the parish which did not belong to any of these manors; some land of Terrington and Ganthorpe townships was socland of the manor of Sheriff Hutton, while yet more land in Terrington was soc of Foston manor. In 1086 the parish was thus divided up amongst several different manors, each with their separate lords and customs.(1)

In a 1335 extent or survey of Terrington manor the lord owned a manor house with gardens and a dovecote. There were six bovates of land belonging to the manor: these were held by various tenants-at-will at a total rent of £6 a year made in two payments at the feasts of St. Martin and Pentecost. There was a pasture called Le Side Corttium, 42a. of land rendering £6.6.0 in rents twice a year, and another pasture called RokWor valued at 6s.8d. a year. The manorial oven, at which the men of the manor baked their bread, was worth 3s.4d, a year, as were the fines from the manor court. The lord also had various other rents from his tenants, who were described as free-tenants, tenants-at-will, tenants for a term of lives and cottagers. The total annual value of the manor was £20.0.3.(2) By 1506 the value of the manor had fallen to £12.10.0., but no specific reasons for this decline are known.(3)

In 1228 Terrington seems to have been prospering for the King had granted the lord of Terrington manor the right to hold a market there on Wednesdays, and an annual fair lasting for three days, on the eve, day and morrow of the nativity of the Virgin Mary. Unfortunately it is not known if the market and fair were ever held.(4) By at least the mid-l4th century the lords of Terrington had also been granted hunting rights within the manor, for in 1367 the lord complained that while he had been away in France on the King's service, certain people had broken his fences at Terrington and elsewhere, and had abused his right of free warren by hunting.(5)

From at least the late 13th century the lords of Terrington manor owned a water mill. This was worth 7s.6d. a year in 1275. The mill is last mentioned in 1588; its site is unknown but it may have lain somewhere along Ings Beck.(6)

Less is known of the manors and lands in the other townships. In 1227 the King ordered the sheriff of Yorkshire to call a jury and make a perambulation between the lands of John of Bulmer in Bulmer and of William of Mowthorpe in Mowthorpe, presumably to settle some boundary dispute between these neighbouring land-holders.(7) In 1240 Anketin Mallory, lord of Wiganthorpe, held three carucates of land in Mowthorpe.(8) His son Nicholas was said to hold his land in Mowthorpe as part of a serjeanty of the Crown; in the mid-l4th century this serjeanty was to find an archer for York castle for 40 days a year if there was war in the county.(9) The lord of Mowthorpe obtained a grant of free warren from the Crown in 1329.(10) There was a mill at Mowthorpe during the Middle Ages. It is first mentioned in 1250 and again in 1288 when it was worth 10s. a year in rent. It is last mentioned in 1303. Its site is not known, but it probably lay somewhere along Bulmer Beck.(11)

Very little is known of Wiganthorpe manor. The lord had a grant of free-warren there in 1304.(12) In 1373 he held a house, a waste plot, eight bovates of land, a close called Spitelclose, and various rents in Wiganthorpe.(13) A mill is mentioned in Wiganthorpe in 1250, but nothing more is known of it.(14) It seems likely that the lords of Wiganthorpe lived for at least some time in Terrington, for in 1234 the King granted Anketin Mallory, lord of Wiganthorpe, six oaks from the forest of Galtres to build the posts and crossbeams of his house at Terrington.(15) At Ganthorpe the holding of the lord there in 1323 comprised five houses, 17 bovates of land and four crofts, all held by various tenants and worth £5.11.2. a year.(16) The rents of the Ganthorpe tenants-at-will rendered £3.2.5. in 1359.(17) The manor house at Ganthorpe is mentioned in 1200; a common bakehouse was included in a description of the manor made in 1435.(18)

Various types of landholders are described within the parish. In 1282 the freeholders of Terrington are mentioned; these were persons who owned the freehold of their land, possibly paying to the lord of the manor a nominal rent and owing suit at his court.(18A) In 1335 the lord of Terrington manor had rents from his free tenants twice a year. At the same date he also had rents from those who held their land for a term of lives, that is for a period of time which covered an agreed number of generations. Another group were the tenants-at-will, who held their land at the whim of the lord and had little or no security of tenure. There were also cottagers, persons who had only the use of the small-holdings around their homes, and who had to rely upon hiring out their labouring services for their livelihood.(18B) Tenants-at-will at Ganthorpe are mentioned in 1359 (18C) and free tenants at Wiganthorpe in 1373.(18D) At the manor court of Terrington held in 1616, there were about 14 free tenants who were obliged to attend, about 28 under-tenants and 31 tenants-at-will.(18E) In 1758 there were 20 freeholders and 51 tenants called to the court. In 1772, just seven years before the open fields were enclosed, there were 22 freeholders and 69 tenants. By 1817 the number of freeholders had fallen to 17, and the number of tenants increased to 110 with six under-tenants. At the court held in 1893 there were 14 freeholders and 73 tenants. It is noticeable that as the 19th century advanced, the number of those holding property, both as freeholders and tenants, was decreasing.(18F)

During the Middle Ages and later the government of the parish was for the most part the responsibility of the lords of the manors within the area. Although nothing is known of the courts of the lords of Ganthorpe and Wiganthorpe manors, it seems likely that the lords of Mowthorpe held a manorial court until at least the early 15th century, since the bondmen of the lord there banded together in 1407 and refused to pay their due customs and services. This revolt was brought to the attention of the King by the aggrieved lord and a royal inquiry was set up. Unfortunately the outcome is not known.(19)

More is known of the manorial court of Terrington, which by the 17th century probably served as the centre of local government for the parish as a whole. The record of the court held in October 1616 survives (20) and shows that it comprised a 'court leet with view of frankpledge and court baron'. The court leet and view of frankpledge were courts held properly only by a grant from the King and gave the lord jurisdiction over petty offences and the civil affairs of the district. The view of frankpledge was intended to ensure the keeping of the peace by dividing all men over the age of twelve years into groups, nominally of ten persons, each member of the group being responsible for the good behaviour of the other members within it. The court baron, the third element in the jurisdiction of the Terrington court, filled the part of the customary court of the manorial tenants.(21)

The usual manorial officials were elected at the 1616 court: they were a constable, two keepers of bread and ale to test the measures used in the making of these commodities for sale, three byelawmen to present to the court any person who broke the customs of the manor, and a pinder to impound all straying beasts and cattle. At this session of the court £1.13.2 was taken in fines.(22) The records of the courts held in the 18th and 19th centuries are preserved at Castle Howard.(23) These show that a constable was always appointed and sometimes a deputy to help him. A pinder was also usually appointed and byelawmen of a varying number. At the court held in 1772 there were four byelawmen to safeguard the regulations concerning the pastures and fields, and another four to look after the commons. The most common offence for which persons were fined was that of allowing beasts to stray in the fields and lanes. In 1752 a man was fined 2d. for swine getting into the cornfield, while another was fined 1s. for an unruly hog being in the common. At the same court another man was fined 2d. for failing to make a path up to his croft as usual, and yet another had to forfeit 6d. for walking out at night in a suspicious manner. In 1762 the fines varied from 1s. for unlawfully cutting whins in North Carr and for bad fencing around pigs and geese, to 2d. for making a road where there should not have been one, for gathering leaves before the proper time and for gathering stones unlawfully in 'Furwood'. Other fines that year included 6d. for exceeding the sheep stint on the commons and 4d. for tethering animals in the cultivated fields. All these offences were committed against the customs and byelaws of the manor which were for the most part concerned with the agricultural arrangements of the open-field economy. Petty criminal offences were also tried at the court, however: in 1773, for example, a man was fined 1s. for abusing the jury and paying bad money.

The Quarter Sessions records for the 17th century show the working of royal jurisdiction in the parish as it was exercised through the justices of the peace. In 1614 the inhabitants of Terrington were presented at Quarter Sessions for not repairing Mowthorpe Lane, and in the following year the inhabitants of Mowthorpe were before the court for failing to clean the water sewers on the Mowthorpe side from Sheriff Hutton Carr to Thornton Carr.(24) In 1616 three labourers of Terrington were before the justices for allowing a thief in their custody to escape.(25). In 1607 John Gelderd of Wiganthorpe and John Stockdell of Terrington were accused of contravening the regulations for keeping servants, and there are other instances during this period of persons in the parish being summoned for breaking similar regulations - as for example, those concerning apprenticeship and marketing.(26)


1. V.C.H. Yorks. ii. 202, 222, 241. 242. 312.

2. P.R.O. c135/44 (6), m.4.

3. Cal. Inq. p.m. 2nd ser., vol. iii, p.75.

4. B.M. Dodsworth c41, f.44.

5. Cal. Pat. 1367-7, 63, 264.

6. Cal. Inq. p.m. vol. ii, p.77; Yorks. Inq. (Y.A.S.R.S. 12), 161; Cal. Pat. 1547-53, 245; Y.A.S., V.C.H. N.R. slips.

7. Close R. 1227-31, 87-88.

8. V.C.H., Yorks., N.R. ii. 204.

9. Cal. Fine R. i. 62 vi. 307.

10. Cal. Rot. Chart., 142.

11. Cal. Inq. p.m. vol. ii, no 666; V.C.H. N.R. ii. 203.

12. V.C.H. Yorks, N.R. ii. 205.

13. Cal. Inq. p.m., vol. xiii, p250.

14. Y.A.S., V.C.H. N.R. slips.

15. Close R. 1231-4, 409.

16. P.R.O., c 134/82 (7).

17. Cal. Inq. p.m. vol. x, p.421.

18. Y.A.S., V.C.H., N.R. slips; Cur. Reg. R. i. 367-8.

18A. Cal. Inq. p.m. ii., p.249.

18B. P.R.O., c135/44 (6) m.4.

18C. Cal. Inq. p.m. vol. x, p421.

18D. Ibid. xiii., p.250.

I8E. Y.A.S, M.D. 165.

18F. Castle Howard Muniments, Box 22, Call Rolls.

19. Cal. Pat. 1405-8, 355-6.

20. Other court rolls, for 1554, 1617-18 and 1619-20, are deposited in the N.R. Record Office, Northallerton, but in 1964 were inaccessible.

21. H. S. Bennett, Life on the English Manor, 198-9, 337.

22. Y.A.S., M.D. 165; the pound, which was situated at the corner of New Road and Dalby Road, had been used for stray animals within living memory.

23. Castle Howard Muniments, Box 22.

24. N.R. recs. ii., 42, 82, 90-91.

25. Ibid. 137.

26. Ibid. i. 60, 61, 158, 159, 227, 236; iii: 113, 131.


Throughout the greater part of historical times — from the beginnings of its known history until 1779 — Terrington was an open-field parish. The landscape was not divided, as in modern times, into a pattern of fields, hedges and consolidated farms. Instead, the arable land around the village was divided into two or more large open fields in which lay the individual strips or allotments of the peasants. Beyond the open, arable area was the largely untamed natural landscape of the wastes or commons, themselves an important part of the medieval economy.

The strips of the open-fields were grouped together into bundles called furlongs. Usually the strips within a furlong were roughly parallel, and had a different orientation from those in adjacent furlongs. The origins of strip-farming are vague, but the standard strip is said to be the amount of land a plough team could plough in a day. Often, particularly on heavy soils such as clay, the effect of ploughing in strips was to create humped ridges, one per strip. This was because ploughing began along the centre of each strip, then continued round and round, constantly throwing the soil inwards. Over many parts of England therefore, the open field strips are fossilised as 'ridge and furrow'. The ridges vary enormously in width, length, height and plan ; they commonly have a reversed-S shape, said to help the plough team swing round at the ends of the strip.(1)

The open fields were controlled by decisions taken in the manorial courts or at a village meeting. At least one field would be left fallow each year in order to rest the soil and so that it might be manured by the animals grazing on it. A peasant's holding in the arable fields would generally consist of several strips scattered about the fields, or as a later development, bunched together as a small consolidated holding within each field. Beyond the arable fields lay the rough grazing and common lands; the number of animals an individual was allowed to turn out on to these was often determined by the number of strips he held in the fields.

There is little evidence of land usage in the parish during the middle ages. It is clear from Domesday Book, however, that some part of the parish had been cultivated before William's wasting, since one holding in Terrington had provided enough arable land for two oxen to plough and another in Wiganthorpe enough arable for half a plough team. Much of the parish had been wasted by the Conqueror, but there is no reason to suppose that agriculture in the parish did not soon recover.(1A) The topography of the parish would be all-important in determining land usage. It is likely that the arable fields were at first concentrated around the townships, with rough grazing land and woodland on the more remote, higher ground, and with marsh, pasture and peat on the low-lying land near the streams flowing mainly in the southern portion of the parish. In 1239 the land between Mowthorpe and Stittenham was described as marshland which provided both common pasture and turbary.(2) There was evidently a considerable amount of woodland in the parish, 20 acres of woodland are mentioned in Ganthorpe in 1279 (3), 16a. in Mowthorpe in 1303 (4), while in 1369 William Latimer complained that his trees in Terrington had been felled while he had been abroad.(5) A wood called Cadiff Forest in Terrington is mentioned in 1623.(5A)

The descriptions of various holdings in the parish at different dates show that mixed agriculture was practised. In 1303 a holding in Mowthorpe contained 15 bovates of arable land and 16a. of wood; another in Terrington in 1425 contained 16 bovates of land, 6a. of meadow, 100a. of pasture and 10a. of moor; another in Wiganthorpe had, in 1499, 100a. of land, 50a. of meadow and 60a of pasture, and one in Ganthorpe in 1597 had 20a. of arable land, 20a. of meadow, 3a. of pasture, 40a. of common moor and turbary and some closes.(6) There is perhaps evidence of animal husbandry in 1175 when a Daniel of Terrington was fined 15s. by the royal justices for allowing his cattle to stray.(7) In settlement of a debt in 1329 two men of Terrington paid their creditors in goods valued at 20 marks; these were 76 sheep, 4 oxen, 2 mares and a black horse with its harness, plus 23a. of corn which had been sown in four bovates of land in Terrington field, namely 11½a. of wheat and 11½a. of oats, barley and peas.(8) The main tithes collected by the rector in 1534 were of grain, hay, wool and sheep, hemp, linen, calves and chickens.(9) This evidence clearly indicates, as the topography of the parish would suggest, that the economy of the community depended upon both arable farming and animal husbandry, probably in more or less equal proportions.

There is not much evidence of the disposition of the open fields before the 16th century. An extent of Terrington manor in 1335 mentions two pastures, one called the Side Corttium and the other Rokwor, but it is not known where these were situated.(10) In 1560 fields in Ganthorpe are mentioned: 'Crossefield, under the headland against the brook ditch', may perhaps have been near Cross Hill, but the location of Parson's Flats, Cleave Lees, Park Field, Bolland and Carregate is not known.(11) In 1685 Mowthorpe Lowfield is named.(11A)

The description of a tenant-holding in Terrington in 1563 gives a clearer picture of Terrington fields, (12) the location of which may be discovered from later evidence.(13) Moreover there is no reason to suppose that the majority of the fields then described were not of ancient origin and that their general disposition had not been determined from the earliest times. In 1563 there were five open fields in Terrington. One of these was Terrington 'Brot', a piece of land lying along the north of Broats Lane in the eastern portion of the parish. It is possible that this field may not have been as ancient in origin as the others in the parish, since the word Brot can mean a clearing in a wood, or a small piece of land, both interpretations which suggest a later extension of the arable fields.(14) Kirk Field, lying as its name suggests around Terrington Church, West Field (later West Moor) lying in the western part of the parish, Howfield lying between Church Field and West Field and presumably getting its name from the tumuli in that area of the parish (howe being the Norse word for a burial mound), and Millfield, lying near the village on its southern side, were the remaining four fields. In addition there was a meadow called Paddock Ings which may have lain on the southern side of Howfield and Millfield. There were two common cow pastures, one of which was called North Carr, the other being un-named.

The furlongs, or groups of strips within the fields, were also named and some of the names given in 1563 are of particular interest. In West Field, there was Stoniland, which described the nature of the land, and Flento, a name which suggests association with the tumuli in the western part of the parish, for Flento was later Flint Howe. Another furlong in West Field, Kell Spring, was clearly associated with water. In Millfield, Crossgall was a furlong whose name survives as a modern field name; Dogthorns and Undersouthwood were perhaps in the area of Sorwood Thorns while Butfurlong must have lain, as its name describes, at the edge of the field — probably in an awkward corner of the great field's layout. Another furlong in West Field was called Crosebeck this furlong is again referred to in 1662 when it was said to lie near the common balk or way which led from Howfield to the West Moor.(15)

Many furlongs are named in the glebe terriers of the 17th and 18th centuries. These are far too numerous to list in detail, but some are noteworthy in so far as their location is known or may be surmised, while others still survive as modern field names. The terrier for 1685 is very detailed and differs little from later terriers.(16) In it the following names, now field names, occur: Body Hill land (Bawdy Hill); Lomehill lands (Lame Hill); Cotterdills lands in Church Field (Cotrils?); Norcore (North Carr); in Mill Field lands going to Coumhedge (Coome hedge); Parson Mare (Parsons Mar); Longlands; Cross Galls; Far Cross lands; Holbeck Warp (Holebeck Close?). Tenter lands are also mentioned — at some time woollen cloth may have been pegged out to stretch and dry there. The position of the following strips may be surmised: town end lands, bounded by Terrington on the north and Coome hedge on the south, and Wandills, bounded by Parsons Mar on the west.

The 1685 terrier describes some of the common balks or ways through the open fields. Broadway seems to have been one of the main roads in the parish, corresponding to the modern Dalby road, and there was a balk on the east of the Middle Broats. Other balks were described in Howfield, Church Field, Mill Field, East Lowfield under Firwood and in West Lowfield or the field under the Cliff, but their whereabouts cannot now be determined. In addition to the common fields, North Carr and Firwood were named as common pastures, and east and west town ings as meadow land. The description of the fields in this terrier shows that hedges delineated some of the fields and strips. It is also clear from this and earlier documents that there had long been small enclosures from the open fields. In 1367, for example, the closes of William Latimer had been broken (17), Spitelclos is mentioned in 1373 (18), Hemp Garth in 1563 (a name which suggests an enclosure for the exclusive growing of hemp) (19), New Close in 1663 (20) and Firwood Close in 1685.(21)

In 1772 an act of Parliament was passed authorising the enclosure of the open fields within the township and parish of Terrington.(22) It described these as comprising six open fields called Howfield, Church Field, the Broats, Low Field under Cliff, the Old Mill Field and Low Field under Southwood. Also to be enclosed were three common pastures — South Wood, North Carr, West Ings — and three moors or commons — the Cliff, West Moor, the Bank with Little Carr. This area seems to have covered the greater part of the parish. It seems likely that Wiganthorpe and its open fields had been erased, probably sometime during the 18th century with the building of the hall and creation of the park. Mowthorpe had probably lost its identity as a separate township by this date and it seems likely that its fields had become absorbed into those of Terrington. The remaining area of the parish comprising Ganthorpe township and its fields does not appear to be included in the Award; it may have been that Ganthorpe, with perhaps but few tenants having rights in the open fields, had already been absorbed into the Castle Howard estate and enclosed. The Award of 1779 which arranged the details of enclosure, also mentions the old enclosures of Terrington; these seem to have lain at the eastern end of the village on the northern side of Howthorpe Road.(23)

Some physical remains of the open-field parish can be seen in the modern landscape. There is evidence of the strips in the fields in many places, but perhaps those most marked and easily accessible are the broad ridges and furrows on the northern side of Howthorpe Road east of the Rectory (Grid Ref. 677708), and the butt ends of ridge and furrow on the southern road verge of Dalby Road which are particularly visible in winter. Coach Balk in its present form has a later history, but in origin it may well have been a balk or access way in Howfield. Running into Coach Balk behind Field Houses are clearly marked hollow ways or well-worn ancient trackways through the open field (Grid Ref. 664709). Many of the modern roads doubtless follow the line of roads within the open-field parish - in 1779, for example, the road to Ganthorpe and that to Scackleton were described as ancient.(24)

Little is known of the size of tenant holdings within the parish. A description made in 1323 of the tenant holdings of Ralph, Baron Graystock, in Ganthorpe, shows that his six tenants held land in amounts varying from two to four bovates. The tenants paid rents for their holdings, probably instead of agricultural service. The two largest holdings comprised 1 messuage and 4 bovates of land at a rent of £1.4.0 a year each. There were single holdings of a messuage and 3 bovates of land at £1, a messuage and 2 bovates of land at 13s.4d., a toft and 2 bovates of land at 14s. and 2 bovates of land at 10s.10d. In addition there were four tofts held at 1s.3d. each.(25) More is known of the holding of a tenant-at-will in Terrington in 1563. He held 18a.3r. in 32 furlongs scattered about the five open fields — Terrington Brot (strips in 2 furlongs), Kirkfield (strips in 6 furlongs), West Field (strips in 9 furlongs), Howfield (strips in 5 furlongs), Millfield (strips in 10 furlongs). The size of the strips varied from 1½ roods to 1a., but the most usual size was ½a., sometimes described as 1a. divided into two equal parts. In addition to arable land, the tenant held as much meadow land in the ings as he had breadth of arable abutting on them; this amounted to seven strips against the ings. It was estimated that he would gather four cart loads of hay from the grassland so apportioned. He had the right to pasture four oxen or four cows in the common cow pastures (North Carr and one un-named) and could keep as many cattle and sheep on the commons as he could provide for in winter fodder. He also held a small amount of enclosed land and a cottage.(26)

There is little evidence of the occupations, wealth and numbers of the inhabitants of the open-field parish. The earliest evidence of collective wealth occurs in 1169 when the men of Ganthorpe paid 10s. to the King as their part of the tax levied for the marriage of the daughter of Henry II.(27) Much later, in 1663, four persons were subject to the lay subsidy tax of Charles II; Jordan Metham and his wife paid £4.16.4 and 1s.4d. respectively. Robert Wildon £3.16.0 and Ursula Metham, a spinster, 1s.4d.(28) One year later a tax of 2s. per hearth was levied on the hearths in houses belonging to ratepayers (i.e. church and poor rates) with an annual income of more than £1. In Terrington John Geldard owned the largest house with nine hearths. Samuel Pauson had five hearths, and Michael and Robert Wildon two hearths each. At Ganthorpe Ralph Lassells was taxed on four hearths.(29) In 1595 Francis Metham (ancestor of Jordan and a substantial land holder) willed his house at Wiganthorpe to his nephew Thomas. He described it as having a hall and two parlours, all wooden panelled; there was glass in all the windows, and the doors had locks and keys. The outhouses consisted of a brewhouse and stables for horses and oxen. The house was surrounded by railings.(30) At his death Francis Metham also owned a cottage in Terrington called Deribus house.(31) In the 17th century there were houses in Terrington called Cadicroft and the Hermitage.(31A). Possibly the earliest-built cottage to be seen within the parish is that now converted into a Roman Catholic chapel. This house is of 17th century date, with a large cowl chimney at one end. The supports for the timbers taking the loft or upper storey can be seen in the walls, although the ceiling itself has been taken down, as has the wall dividing the ground floor into two rooms.(32)

As far as can be ascertained the population within the parish has steadily grown. In 1377 there were 126 adult persons (i.e. over 14 years old) who paid the poll tax levied by Richard II. (33) In 1548 there were 260 regular communicants at the church — presumably the whole or greater part of the adult population.(34) In 1743 there were 100 families in the parish.(35) Between 1600 and 1700 approximately 1123 baptisms took place in Terrington church. The numbers baptised each year varied from about 16 to 9 persons, the two decades 1620-40 having a lower number than the other decades within the century.(36) The number of deaths during the same period varied greatly, from three in some years to the extraordinarily high number of 34 in 1680 and 27 in 1681. No reason is known for this sudden increase — it may have been caused by a local epidemic or outbreak of plague.(37) As would be expected agriculture was the main occupation of the parishioners, milling being another known occupation in the parish in medieval times. It is likely that any other occupations would he closely allied to the needs of a rural community, thus in addition to the trades of husbandman and yeoman, those of cooper, weaver, miller and tanner are mentioned in the Parish Register during the 17th century.


1. H. C. Bowen, Ancient Fields (1961), includes a survey of the evidence for open-field agriculture.

1A. Y.C.H. Yorks. ii. 222, 242.

2. Y.A.S. V.C.H. N.R. slips.

3. Ibid.

4. Ibid.

5. Cal Pat. 1367-70, 264.

5A. B.M., Add. Chart 25724.

6. Y.A.S. V.C.H. N.R. slips; Cal. Close. 1422-29, 238; Cal. Inq. Hen VII, ii. 113-14; Y.A.J. viii. 376.

7. Pipe R. 21 Hen. II (P.R.S. 22), 181

8. Y.A.S. MD. 155.

9. Valor Eccl. (Rec. Com.) v.96.

10 P.R.O. c135/44 (6) m.4.

11. Y.A.S. V.C.H. N.R. slips.

11A. York Dioc. Regy. (St. Ant. Hall). RIII. N. lix. I. (1685)

12. Castle Howard Muniments, Box 24, Field Book 1562-3, pp. 225-29.

13. The Inclosure Award of 1779 is most helpful; Castle Howard Muniments, Box 12, bundle 102.

14. Place Names of N.R. (E.P.N.S.V.)

15 Terrington Par. Reg. (Par. Reg. Soc. 29), 45.

16. York Dioc. Regy. (St. Ant. Hall), RIII. N. lix. I. (1685); the modern field names have been taken from O.S. Map 6'' (1950) and learned by local enquiry.

17. Cal. Pat. 1367-70, 63.

18. Cal. Inq. p.m. xiii. 175.

19. Castle Howard Muniments, Box 24. Field Bk. 1562-3, pp.225-9.

20. York Dioc. Regy. (St. Ant. Hall), RIII. N. lix. 1a (1663).

21. Ibid. RIII. N. lix. 1. (1685).

22. Castle Howard Muniments, Box 7, bundle 50.

23. Ibid., Box 12, bundle 102.

24. Ibid.

25. P.R.O. c134/82 (7).

26. Castle Howard Muniments. Box 24. Field Bk. 1562-3, pp.225-9.

27. Pipe R. 15 Hen. II (P.R.S. 13), p.36.

28. Y.A.S., V.C.H. N.R. slips.

29. Ibid.

30. Y.A.J. viii. 368-9.

31. Ibid. 375-6.

31A. B.M., Add. Chart., 25724.

32. Dr. E. A. Gee kindly viewed this building.

33. From notes of Prof. M. Beresford.

34. Yorks. Chantry Certs. ii. (Sur. Soc. 92), 476.

35. Abp. Herring's Vstn. iii. (Y.A.S.R.S. 75), 160-1.

36. From figures taken from Terrington Par. Reg. (Yorks. Par. Reg. Soc. 29) by Mr. J. Sudbury.

37. From figures taken from Terrington Par. Reg. (Yorks. Par. Reg. Soc. 29).


The inclosure of the open fields of Terrington in 1779 probably had a greater effect than any other single event upon the landscape of the parish and the way of life of the people. In 1772 an act of Parliament was passed authorising the inclosure of the six open fields, the three common pastures and the three moors, but it was not until 1779 that this complicated matter was settled.(1) The commissioners appointed to carry out the act had to consider all claims, not only to land but also to such things as manorial privileges and rectorial tithes. In all 20 persons received amounts of land, the two largest allotments being made to the Earl of Carlisle, the lord of the manor, and to John Cayley, the rector. 1840a.20p. of land were enclosed.(2)

The Earl of Carlisle received some 1200a. These included 1/32 of the moor or commons instead of his right, as lord of the manor, to the legal ownership of the commons and of his right to cut the hay growing on the common balks in the open fields. Of the remaining 600a., the rector received 366a. in place of his tithes and common rights. The remaining acreage was divided amongst the 18 other claimants, who received land varying in amount from 53a. to 2½a.. Only four persons received over 20a., six persons over 10a. and the remaining eight persons under 10a.. 3a. were set aside in quarries to provide stone for road mending and cottage repairs; one quarry was of 2a. adjoining Dalby Road, and the other was of 1a. in West Moor. 5½a. of Little Carr was awarded to the owners of 6 messuages and 15 cottages for peat digging. They were allowed annually not more than three cart loads of peat per messuage and two cart loads per cottage, with a right of way from the Malton Road over the Earl of Carlisle's land.

The inclosure commissioners also laid down what were to be the public and private roads in the parish, and their widths. In this task they doubtless used many of the existing roads and tracks, perhaps straightening a bend here and there, and in most cases increasing the width. Mowthorpe Lane, for example, is described in the Award as an ancient lane, as are the Malton and Scackleton roads. The Dalby Road may also have followed the line of an ancient track, but in its modem appearance it is a typical inclosure road. It runs with scarcely a bend from the west of Terrington village towards Dalby, has wide green verges on either side and from hedge to hedge measures the 60 ft. stipulated by the commissioners. The newness of New Road probably dates from the Award, since it was created as a private bridle road, 40 ft. wide, to enable two persons to reach their allotments. Coach Balk (Grid Ref. 665709) appears to have followed an ancient way which was preserved by the commissioners to provide a private carriage and bridle road (40 ft. wide) to Wiganthorpe. Only a short portion of this road can now be seen.

The immediate effect of the award upon the parish may be guessed. The large open fields and commons had to be quickly enclosed to show the clearly delineated holdings of the owners of the land, and in a matter of years the larger individual holdings had probably been further broken up into smaller fenced fields. The expenses of fencing, and of the legal and surveyors' costs of the award itself, probably pressed hard on those receiving small allotments. To some people in the village, deprived of their former common rights, this change in a long-established way of life may have brought hardship. Of the twenty people who received allotments, at least eight did not belong in the parish but lived elsewhere.

In 1823 there were 15 farmers in Terrington, as there were in 1851, when the farms varied in size from 134a. to 10a.; of these farms five were below 50a., two between 50a. and 100a., and the remaining eight 100a. or more.(3) In 1851 there were in addition four farmers at Mowthorpe (farming 80a., 190a., 150a., and 77a.), two farmers at Wiganthorpe (262a., 300a.) and three farmers at Ganthorpe (300a., 29a., 340a.). In 1872 there was still 15 farmers at Terrington, but the number of farmers in the hamlets had decreased to 3 at Ganthorpe, 3 at Mowthorpe and the owner of the hall at Wiganthorpe.(4) The other occupations found in the parish during this period were those to be expected in an agricultural community - publicans, masons, blacksmiths, wheelwrights, carriers, shopkeepers, tailors, shoemakers, and most numerous of all, labourers.

In 1963 the members of the W.E.A. Local History class carried out a survey of all persons over 21 years in the parish, excluding Ganthorpe. The names of these persons were taken from the voters' register and only those people on the register resident in the parish at the time of the survey were considered. As might be expected, the survey showed that the greatest number of working men were concerned with agriculture and with trades closely allied to farming. There were eighteen farmers, of whom eight owned their farms, nine rented them, and one did both. There were also three smallholders. The number of persons directly concerned with farming was thus very little different from that of the late 19th century, but the size of the farms had altered. In 1963 the majority of farms were between 150a. and 200a. whereas in the 19th century there had been greater diversity in farm acreages. In 1963 twenty-four men worked as farm labourers, while seven others were in occupations closely associated with farming. Seventeen persons were in different trades, another four were shopkeepers, another ten were teachers. The high number of teachers in this rural community would be remarkable but for the presence of Terrington Hall Preparatory School where the majority worked. There were 99 men of working age, of whom 36 were self-employed; 57 worked entirely within the parish bounds, 23 worked outside the parish and the remaining 19 worked both inside the parish and elsewhere. The number of self-employed persons is not perhaps particularly high for a rural community, but it is remarkable that only 23 persons relied entirely for their livelihood on work outside the parish. In all there were 233 men and women considered by the survey (117 men, 116 women); of these the families of 81 had been in the parish less than 10 years, the families of 120 had lived in the parish more than 10 years but less than 2 generations, and the families of 22 had lived there for 2 generations or more.(5)

Although the number of the persons with long family connections in the parish was the smallest, the village has a strong community spirit and is self-reliant for much of its social activity and entertainment.


1. Castle Howard Muniments, box 7. bundle 50; box 12, bundle 102.

2. Ibid. box 12, bundle 102.

3. Baines Dir. N.R. (1823); P.R.O., H.O. 107/2369 (5.1-2).

4. Kelly's Dir. N.R. (1872)

5. I am grateful to the members of the class for their help with the survey.


The history of the advowson, or right to present an incumbent to Terrington church, makes a complex legal story which can be found in the Victoria County History, North Riding, vol. ii.(1) It is unlikely that the legal complexity of the history of the advowson much affected church life within the parish, except perhaps in the late 13th century, when the division of the advowson resulted in a stormy interlude in the history of the living.

In about 1275 the advowson was divided amongst the four sisters and co-heiresses of the late lord of Wiganthorpe, who had held the right to present an incumbent. The four co-heiresses, Margery Salvin, Avis Burdon, Nichola de Oglethorpe and Sarah de Glinton, agreed that they should present to the living in turn as vacancies occurred. In the first instance the King presented Otto of Chauvenz to the vacant living, but in 1303 the guardian of Margery's infant son, to whom her interest had descended, presented Henry of Appelby. There seems to have been some confusion at this time as to whether or not Otto was still alive, and the issue was further confused by the presentation of a third priest, Gilbert of Stapleton, to the living by the representatives of the other three sisters. The King finally settled the matter by saying that Henry of Appelby was to have the living whether Otto was alive or dead, since Otto, if alive, had another benefice in addition to Terrington.(2) This was the end of the affair and in 1304 Henry was able to accompany the new archbishop elect of York, William Greenfield, to Rome.(3) In 1309 he was himself allowed to hold another benefice in addition to Terrington.(4)

In 1311 the living was again vacant, and once again the right to present was in dispute. Sir Miles Stapelton presented Sir Robert Wodehous but in the same year William Latimer, claiming that the advowson was his, presented Richard of Scarborough. A trial was ordered in the King's court, and although the outcome is not known later records suggest that Stapelton and Wodehous won the day.(5) But the troubles over the right of presentation to Terrington church were not over, for in 1317 there were two other claimants to the church against Wodehous; the outcome of their claims is not known, but it is likely that Wodehous, who was already in possession, retained the living.(6)

In the mid-13th century Terrington church was the scene of a brawl and murder. It seems that Germanus, chaplain of Dalby, Stephen, priest of Terrington, and other persons insulted the men of Henry of Shefton in Terrington church, and in the resulting brawl William of Lydeyate was murdered. A royal inquiry was ordered into the matter, but after this had been carried out the same persons went again to the church and stole certain goods from it, destroyed the goods in the house of Henry of Shefton, and beat up the men living in the houses belonging to the church. A second royal inquiry was ordered and in 1253 the guilty persons were imprisoned. As far as the priest of Terrington was concerned he served but a three year sentence, for in 1256 he obtained a royal pardon at the instance of Margaret, Queen of Scotland.(7)

Several rectors of Terrington church, in addition to Henry of Appelby, enjoyed dispensations to hold the benefice in plurality. In 1426 Robert Twaytys, the rector, was granted the right to hold another benefice, seemingly because he was of noble birth; other medieval rectors to obtain this right were Thomas Tong in 1450 and Henry Vavasour in 1481.(8) These three rectors also had university degrees. A distinguished medieval rector was John Shirwood, archdeacon of Richmond. He was a noted lawyer in the Roman court, was later Bishop of Durham and narrowly missed a cardinalate. He was rector of Terrington from 1455 to 1467.(9)

There is little information about the value of Terrington rectory during the Middle Ages. In 1292, to help the Pope meet the expenses of a Crusade in the Holy Land, Edward I granted him a tax of one tenth on the value of English churches for six years. Terrington church was then valued at £30 a year.(10) In 1318 a new tax was granted and for this the Yorkshire churches were reassessed owing to the damage some of them had suffered in Scottish raids. The value of the living at Terrington had fallen to £15 a year, and this remained its value in 1428 when a further tax was raised.(11) In 1534 the value of Terrington rectory was again assessed, on this occasion as part of the great ecclesiastical survey made by Henry VIII upon the dissolution of the monasteries. The net value of the living was £22.11.10. The greater part of the rector's income came from tithes, which fell into several categories: tithes of grain and hay, £13, of wool and sheep, £4, of hemp and linen, 6s.8d., of chicken and calves, £1.2.4, from small tithes, £3.6.4. Offerings in the church accounted for £1.10.0 and the rector's house and glebe were valued at £1.6.8. From this gross income of £24.12.0 the rector made payments of 13s.6d. to the archbishop and archdeacon and of £1.6.8 to a chantry priest.(12) In 1716 it was noted that all tithes, except calves, were paid in kind and that instead of chickens and eggs every house paid a hen at Christmas.(12A). In 1743 the living was said to be worth £150 a year. The rector was then also the rector of Brandsby, a living which was itself worth over £100 a year. In that year the people of Brandsby complained to the archbishop about the rector because he allowed the curate serving their church a meagre £25 a year in salary, and further offended them by leasing the parsonage house to a Roman Catholic.(13) In 1764 the method by which the hay and corn tithe was collected is described. Once the hay was in cock the farmer notified the rector so that he might send a representative to take every tenth cock before it was carted. As corn was not put into stook, the rector's agent or the farmer threw out every tenth sheaf.(13A). Upon the inclosure of the open fields of Terrington in 1779 the rector received 366 acres in place of his tithes and common rights, was granted the right to dig peat not exceeding 3 cart loads in quantity in any one year, and was allowed a money payment of £8.10.10½ a year charged on various houses and old inclosures.(14)

The earliest reference to a parsonage house in Terrington occurs in 1316 when the King allowed the incumbent and the Prior of Marton to exchange plots of land in Terrington, so that the incumbent gained a plot adjacent to his house which he wished to enlarge.(15) In 1534 the house and glebe were worth £1.6.8 a year.(16) In the mid 16th century the parson's glebe land included Crosse field, Parsonnes Flats, Cleave Leas, Park Field, Bolland and Carregate.(17). In the late 16th century the parsonage house was leased to Francis Metham.(17A) In 1663 the parson's house consisted of a hall, a chamber, a kitchen, bedrooms, two barns, a stable and a dovecote, the whole surrounded by gardens, orchards and yards. He also had extensive glebe lands scattered throughout the open fields.(18) It appears that this house was built on the southern side of the church.(19) Possibly by 1685, certainly by 1705, a new parsonage house with several outhouses had been built; it seems that the old parsonage house had been converted into a school which stood near the gates of the new building.(20) In 1764 the house was described as being built of stone with a slate roof. It was a three storeyed building of several rooms, and the bedrooms were hung with paper. There were barns and stables, a pig stye, hen house, dovecote and shed for storing turf. The area around the house was well wooded, although there were no trees upon the glebe land which consisted of 60a. of arable land and meadow.(21) A new rectory house was built by the rector in 1827, (22) on the same site as before.(23) Another rectory had been built by 1872, this time on a site at the east end of the village. The former house was then called Terrington Hall; it has been a boys' preparatory school since 1920. The new house, which was said to be a handsome building,(24) continued to be used as the rectory until 1964 when a smaller house was built in the walled kitchen garden.

The foundation of chantries, or small chapels in which a priest said prayers for the soul of the founder and his family, was popular in England during the 14th and 15th centuries, and in common with many churches Terrington had a chantry chapel of 14th century foundation. This was situated in what is now the south aisle, and was dedicated to St. Mary the Virgin. It was founded by Sir Brian Stapleton for a priest to pray for the souls of his ancestors and all Christian dead, to say mass in Terrington church and to take divine service at the 'high choir' there.(25) In 1534 the priest received £4 a year in rents from Sir Brian Stapleton (presumably a descendant of the founder).(26) In 1546 the chantry had no endowments apart from a dwelling house valued at 4s. a year, goods valued at 16s. and plate valued at £1.8.0. The priest received an annual income of £4.6.8 from Sir Brian Stapleton and made annual payments of 8s. to the King and 2s. to the lord of Terrington manor. In that year, the priest, Ralph Boyes, had let the chantry house, a barn and croft to Robert Smysson, parson of Terrington.(27) Two years later at the dissolution of the chantries, there were two other priests besides Ralph Boyes serving the chantry. The value of the living was unchanged, but the chantry no longer had its endowments of goods and plate. Ralph Boyes was described as being 55 years old, of honest conversation and qualities but of no learning. (28) The chantry chapel is last mentioned in 1614 when it is described as a chapel annexed to Terrington church.(29)

During the 16th century there was a chapel at Ganthorpe which was dedicated to St. Mary Magdalene and was served from Terrington church. The earliest known description of it was given during the reign of Henry VIII when an inhabitant, who had known it for 30 years, said that it was about half a mile from Terrington church. It stood in a small enclosure and was thatched with straw. It had four small pieces of ground, four strips in Ganthorpe fields and three little dales of meadow in the ings; it was also endowed with a cottage and land, all bringing in a yearly rent of 5s. The incumbent of Terrington was responsible for saying two masses a year in the chapel, one on St Mary Magdalen's day, and the other on Rogation Tuesday.(30) The chapel seems to have fallen into disuse by 1553, for in that year a grant was made of a cottage described as once belonging to the late free chapel of Terrington. Certainly by 1572 the chapel was in the hands of the Metham family. At the death of Francis Metham in 1597 his lands included the former chapel at Ganthorpe, and also a cottage, closes, land, meadow, pasture, common moor and turbary all in Ganthorpe and all former possessions of the chapel.(31) In 1883 it was said that a cottage occupied the site of the chapel, although the chapel building had completely disappeared. It was also said that human bones had been occasionally dug up in the cottage garden, but if this were the case it seems more likely that such bones are to be associated with Terrington hospital (see below) rather than with the chapel, since it would be usual for burial rights to be reserved to the church at Terrington.(32)

It is possible that the chapel at Ganthorpe was the last surviving part of the hospital which was to be found in the parish during the late 13th century. The hospital is first mentioned in 1288 when Sarah Mallory received half a mark a year in rent from it.(33) In 1373 Miles Stapleton owned a close called 'Spitelclose' which may have been the enclosure in which the hospital stood, or at least a close held by the hospital.(34) In 1436 John of Graystock was patron of 'the hospital of St. James called Carmen Spittle' in Ganthorpe, which was probably the same institution.(35) In 1597 Ganthorpe chapel had two closes called Spittle Closes belonging to it — a fact which suggests that the hospital and chapel had a connected history. (36) The name survived in Spittle Gate, mentioned as lying near one of the glebe fields in 1760.(37)

During the Middle Ages several religious houses held lands in Terrington. In 1305 the Dean and Chapter of York Minster were granted a tenement in Mowthorpe and in 1367 land there was given to Malton Priory.(38) In 1588 the Crown granted the re-established knights of St. John of Jerusalem various lands in Terrington and Wiganthorpe.(39) Kirkham and Marton Priories had larger holdings in the parish. In 1226 Kirkham was granted a bovate of land in Terrington valued at 14s., and other land in Mowthorpe valued at £2.2.0. The Crown granted Marton Priory rights of free warren in Terrington in 1333. At the time of the Dissolution the Priory was said to have £4.12.0 in rents from its tenants in Terrington, and to own property there worth £3.11.0.(40) In 1553 the Priory's former property was said to include a windmill in Terrington.(41) A windmill in Terrington, perhaps the same one, is again mentioned in 1588.(41A).

Throughout the Middle Ages and later, the church played a central part in the lives of the parishioners. Not only did christenings, marriages and burials take place in the church building, but it was obligatory on all parishioners to attend a Sunday service. Moreover religious ceremonies, plays and feasting provided one of the main diversions, while saints' days and festivals were the only holidays until modern times. To mark their esteem of the church and to make amends for possible tithes which had not been paid, parishioners often bequeathed goods or money to the church. In 1546 there were said to be lands in Terrington fields, called St. Mary lands, which were let out at 1s. a year to provide candle- or lamp-light in the parish church. This land is again mentioned in 1549 and 1553; it had doubtless been bequeathed to the church by a parishioner.(42) It is likely that the silver cup with cover belonging to the church and which is inscribed 'Tirrington 1663' was given by a parishioner. The two silver patens belonging to the church were given by Sarah Hitch in 1680. She was the widow of a Dean of York, and was buried in Terrington chancel in 1681.(43) It was quite common for people to state in their wills where they wished to be buried. One rector, Robert Witham, asked in 1481 to be buried in the chancel; John Lepton, when he made his will in 1497, wished to be buried in the new aisle before St. Anne's altar, and he also left money for the window near the altar to be glazed with white glass. Francis Metham willed in 1595 that he should be buried in the church choir near the place where both his wives were already buried.(44) In 1621 the church wardens were concerned for the upkeep of the church clock and arranged with William Wilson, clockmaker of York, that he should repair the clock whenever necessary upon 10 days' notice in return for a payment of 5s. a year.(45)

Not surprisingly there was sometimes trouble between the rector and parishioners over the payment of the rector's tithes and dues. In 1659, to cite but one example, there was a case in the archbishop's court over the non-payment of tithe, while in 1684 the archbishop heard another case between the rector and a parishioner over the payment of Easter dues.(44) In 1553 Dorothy Jackson and Robert and William Barton of Ganthorpe were before the archbishop's court for quarrelling about the seating in the church.(47)

Little is known of the services held within the church. From time to time collections were made for specific purposes, as for example in 1664 when 4s.6d. was collected for the inhabitants of Cromer, Norfolk, when the sea had inundated half the town, or in 1680 when £1.3.3 was collected for those taken captive by Algerian pirates.(48) In 1743 there were said to be 100 families in the parish administered to by the rector and a curate. Services were held in the church twice on Sundays, and the catechism was read in Lent; there was a regular Sunday School. Holy Communion was celebrated six times a year, twice at Easter and Christmas, once at Whitsun and Michaelmas. Parishioners were given due notice of the dates and times of Communion services, but were not required, as was often the case elsewhere, to send in their names if they wished to attend. About 100 persons took Communion at Easter, 1743.(49) In 1764 the rector charged the following fees for special services: 1s.6d. for a marriage with licence, 7d. for the churching of women and 7d. for burial.(50) In 1851 the average congregation was 200 persons in the morning and 76 persons in the afternoon; there were also about 76 children at the Sunday School.(51) In 1964 there were 100 communicants at Christmas. In addition to Terrington the rector also served the parish of Dalby with Whenby.

The administration of the various charitable funds within the parish has always been part of the work of the church. Francis Metham of Wiganthorpe left at his death in 1595 the sum of £4 a year to be paid out of his lands for ever to the poor of Terrington.(52) By 1743 this money had increased to £4.13.4 a year charged upon two houses and a close.(53) It seems that it later became merged with money given by Richard Lovell in 1656. He left £5 to be invested, the interest to be paid to poor widows every Good Friday.(54) This money seems to have been invested in land, and payments known as the Doles have long been made from certain properties within the parish. In addition to the Doles there are certain charitable monies paid to the poor out of the Castle Howard estate, a memorial charity to the Rev. Charles Hall (dating from 1875) and Spital Close Arrears charity (dating from 1884). These charities bring in an income of some £13 and together with the doles are administered for the general benefit of the poor by a Charity Commissioners' scheme of 1905. The income was augmented by a donation in 1906.(55) In the first decade of the 20th century a house was left for the benefit of the poor by John Wright; the income from this was to be distributed by the churchwardens at Christmas time (56) (for educational charities see chapter VI).

The number of Roman Catholics within the parish has never been large. In the early days of the Reformation a few persons were presented at the Church and Quarter Sessions courts for not taking communion. Thus it was with Christopher Jackson in 1570 and Francis Metham and his servant Edward Simpson in 1594. Anne Muncaster of Terrington, spinster, was before the justices at Quarter Sessions as a recusant in 1634, and Margaret Metham was fined for recusancy in 1664.(57) These would seem to have been but isolated examples of Roman Catholicism, however, for in 1612 there were said to be no recusants within the parish, and later in 1743 the rector knew of no Roman Catholics there.(58).

An attempt was made to organise Roman Catholic worship in the parish between the two World Wars by the establishment of a chapel at Ganthorpe. A 17th-century cottage was converted by Mrs. Rosalind Toynbee in memory of her son Anthony, and the chapel was dedicated to Our Lady and St. Anthony. During the Second World War Ganthorpe Hall was occupied by a community of Polish priests and the chapel was used by them. After the war the Hall was used as a preparatory school for Roman Catholic boys and Mass was said daily in the chapel by the school chaplain. A few years later the school moved from the Hall, but the new occupiers, Sir Michael and Lady Pallairet, cared for the chapel and services were held every Sunday and Feast Day by the chaplain from Kirkdale Manor School or by a priest from Ampleforth College.

Sir Michael and Lady Pallairet left Ganthorpe about l954 and from then until 1962 the Roman Catholic families in the neighbourhood continued to care for the chapel in which Mass was celebrated on the first Sunday of the month during the school term by the chaplain from Kirkdale Manor School; the average congregation was about 16 persons. From 1962 the financial burden of running the chapel proved too great for the few Roman Catholic families in the area, and services ceased to be held there. In 1964 there were four Roman Catholic families in Terrington parish.(59)

Protestant nonconformists do not appear to have been numerous in the parish before the 19th century. In 1743 the rector reported that there were no dissenters among the 100 families in the parish.(60) The first dissenting chapel was built by the Wesleyan Methodists in 1816 on a site to the north of the parish church. It accommodated about 150 persons.(61) In 1851 there was an average congregation of 70 persons at the Sunday service which was held in the afternoon. There was no Sunday school run by the chapel.(62) In 1964 a service was held every Sunday evening with an average attendance of 11 people. A Sunday school was held for about 18 children.

A Primitive Methodist chapel was built in 1848, at the eastern end of the main village street; it accommodated 120 persons. In 1851 services were held twice on Sundays, with an average congregation of 15 in the afternoon and 60 in the evening.(63) The site of this chapel was bought in 1867 as the site for a new Rectory House. A new chapel was built in the same year south of the main street, near the junction of Back Lane and Mowthorpe Lane.(64) This building was no longer used for Worship in 1964.


1. V.C.H. Yorks. N.R., ii. 204, 206-7.

2. Reg. Corbridge, i. (Sir. Soc. 138), 14-15, 135, 135n., 136-7, 142, 148, 148n.; Year Book, 6 Edw. II, (Seldon Soc. 34), 87-91; Cal. Pat. 1301-7, 210.

3. Cal. Pat. 1301-7, 305.

4. Cal. Papal Regs. ii, 61.

5. Reg. Greenfield iii. (Sur. Soc. 151), 60, 65; Year Book, 6 Edw. II, (Seldon Soc. 34), 87-91.

6. Reg. Greenfield, v. (Sur. Soc. 153), 262, 262n.

7. Cal. Pat. 1247-58, 224, 497; Close R. 1251-53, 450-1.

8. Cal. Papal Regs. vii, 442, 529; Cal. Papal Letters, x, 118; xiii, pt. ii. 750.

9. Test Ebor, iii. (Sur. Soc. 45), 207n.

10. Tax Eccl. (Rec. Com.), 300b.

11. Ibid 323; Feud. Aids, vi. 343.

12. Valor Eccl. (Rec. Com.), v. 96.

12A. York Dioc. Regy. (St. Ant. Hall), RIII N. 2. lix. (1716).

13. Abp. Herring's Vstn. i. (Y.A.S.R.S. 79), 82-83.

13A. York Dioc. Regy. (St. Ant. Hall), III. N. 7. lix. (1764).

14. Inc. Award 1779, Castle Howard Muniments, Box 12. bundle 102.

15. Cal. Pat. 1313-17, 556.

16. Valor Eccl. (Rec. Com.), v. 96.

17. Y.A.S., V.C.H. N.R. slips.

17A. Y.A.J., viii. 370.

18. York Dioc. Regy. (St. Ant. Hall), RIII. N. lix. 1a (1663).

19. Ibid.; RIII. N. lix. 1 (1685).

20. Ibid.; RIII. N. 7. lix. (1764); N. 5. lix. (1749); also copy of MS. at Lambeth Palace in Terrington Parish Chest.

21. York Dioc. Regy. (St. Ant. Hall), RIII, N. 7. lix. (1764).

22. T. Whellan & Co., Hist York and N.R. (1859), ii. 643-4.

23. O.S. Map, 6" (1852/3).

24. Kelly's Dir. N.R. (1872); 0.8. Map, 6" (1889).

25. Yorks. Chantry Certs. i. (Sur. Soc. 91), 86.

26. Valor Eccl. v. (Rec. Com.), 102.

27. Yorks. Chantry Certs. i. (Sur. Soc. 92), 86; Var. Coll. ii. (Hist. MSS. Com. 55), 64.

28. Yorks. Chantry Certs. ii. (Sur. Soc. 92), 416.

29. Y.A.S. V.C.H. .N.R. slips.

30. Y.A.S. V.C.H. N.R. slips.

31. Ibid, Cal. Pat. 1547-1553, 193; Y.A.J., viii. 375-6.

32. Y.A.J., viii. 376n.

33. Cal. Inq. p.m. ii, p.408.

34. Ibid. xiii, p.175.

35. Y.A.S. V.C.H. N.R. slips.

36. Y.A.J., viii. 375-6.

37 Terrington Par. Reg. (Par. Reg. Soc. 29), 159.

38. Abbrev. Rot Orig. (Rec. Com.), i. 142, 292.

39. Cal. Pat. 1557-8, 320.

40. Valor Eccl. (Rec. Com.) v. 93, 103; Dugdale, Mon., vi. 198. 210; Y.A.S. V.C.H., N.R slips.

41. Cal. Pat. 1553, 245.

41A. Y.A.S. V.C.H. N.R. slips.

42. Yorks. Chantry Cert. ii. (Sur. Soc. 92), 476; Cal, Pat. 1549-51. 151; Cal. Pat. 1553, 245.

43. Yorks. Ch. Plate, i. (Y.A.S. Extra Vol iii), 184.

44. Test Ebor. iii. (Sur Soc. 45), 266n; iv. (Sur. Soc. 53), 129-30; Y.A.J. viii. 368-70.

45. Terrington Par. Reg. (Par. Reg. Soc. 29), 2.

46. York Dioc. Regy. (St. Ant. Hall), R.As. 18/144; RVII.H.3611.

47. Ibid. RVII. G.544.

48. Terrington Par. Reg. (Par. Reg. Soc. 29). 49, 50.

49. Abp. Herring's Vstn. iii. (Y.A.S.R.S. 75), 160-I.

50. York Dioc. Regy. (St. Ant. Hall), RIII. N. 7. lix.

51. P.R.O., Eccles. Census, 1851, HO. 129, bundle 24, no. 526.

52. Y.A.J. viii. 368-9.

53. Abp. Herring's Vstn. iii. (Y.A.S.R.S. 75), 160-1.

54. Terrington Par. Reg. (Par. Reg. Soc. 2.9), 45.

55. V.C.H. Yorks. N.R. ii. 207; Char. Com. Rep. (1823). viii.

56. Author's Reference Required.

57. N.R. Recs. iv, 20; Y.A.J. viii, 367; York. Dioc. Regy. (St. Ant. Hall), RVII. G. 1485; V.C.H. Yorks. N.R. ii. 205.

58. N.R. Recs. iii, 93; Abp. Herring's Vstn. iii. (Y.A.S.L.S. 75),160-1.

59. ex. inf. Mrs. M. Gilmore who in 1964 held the key to the chapel; Mrs. Rosalind Toynbee, founder of the chapel, is the granddaughter of the 9th Earl and Countess of Carlisle. Dr. E. A. Gee kindly dated the chapel building.

60. Abp. Herring's Vstn. iii. (Y.A.S.R.S. 75) pp.160-1.

61. P.R.O., 1851 Eccles. Census, H.O. 129, bundle 24, no 526; OS.Map 6" (1852).

62. P.R.O., 1851 Eccles. Census, H.O. 129, bundle 24, no. 526.

63. Ibid.; O.S. Map, 6" (1852).

64. O.S. Map, 6" (1889); Bulmer's Dir. N.R. Yorks. (1890); Church Note Bk., p4.



Only a few facts are known about the early history of education in the parish. There was a school house in Terrington by 1705 which had been built by the incumbent. It seems to have been situated just outside the gate to the parsonage house.(1) In 1743 seven poor children were taught in the school as a result of a bequest of £2 a year made for this purpose by Lewis Elstob.(2) In 1818, when it was noted that many of the poorer classes lacked the means of educating their children, the yearly sum of £1 was paid out of the poor rates for a master to teach two poor children to read and write.(3) Although the reason for the £1 payment was not known, in 1823 it was thought to have been connected with charity money and may perhaps have had some connection with Elstob's bequest.(4) There were two school masters living in Terrington in 1823.(5)

Education in the village seems to have become firmly established during the next decade. In 1833 there was a daily school serving Terrington and Wiganthorpe, in which about 33 boys and 33 girls were educated, chiefly at the expense of their parents with some help from the Earl of Carlisle.(6) This school, run as a National or Church school (i.e. according to the regulations of the 'National Society for promoting the education of the poor in the principles of the established church' which enforced the teaching of the liturgy and catechism of the church of England), seems to have been rebuilt in 1838, presumably near the church on the site of the later British school.(7) In 1887 H.M. Inspector reported that the school was dirty, small and inconvenient, and in 1888 it was condemned as unsuitable.(3) A new village school was then built on a site in the grounds of the former Black Bull Inn. The foundation stone was laid by Dean Purey-Cust in 1890 and the school was opened later the same year.(9) There were 43 children at the school in 1893; in 1907 there were 66 children on the register, and in the following year 61.(10) They were accommodated in two class rooms. The school continued to be used by the village children in 1964 when there were 16 pupils.

The school log book reveals some of the highlights of school life in the early 20th century. In 1910 the head teacher took 37 of the elder children to Hovingham to see the animals in Bostock's Menagerie.(11) 1915 saw the children in more serious mood — bringing pennies to school to help to buy chocolates and cigarettes for soldiers at the front, and later in the year raising 11s. for Christmas gifts for soldiers.(12) On a June day in 1918 several boys played truant in order to see an aeroplane which was in Castle Howard Park.(13)

For a few years Terrington was served by two schools, for Lady Carlisle opposed the building of a new Church school in 1890 and re-opened the old school, in which her family had for so long been interested, as a British school (i.e. according to the tenets of the 'British and Foreign School Society' which enforced bible-reading but excluded denominational teaching). It seems likely that the school building was modernised at this time.(14) In 1893 there were about 52 children attending the school, (15) but by 1897 it had closed down.(16) In 1924 the former school building was sold to the Parish Council by the Hon. G. W. A. Howard for a parish hall and reading room, and was opened as such in 1926.(17) It was sold again in about 1954 to Terrington Hall Preparatory school.

Terrington Hall school was opened in the Hall in 1920 as a feepaying preparatory school for boys. Several extensions to the building have been made and in 1964 the school accommodated 95 pupils.(18)

In 1833 Ganthorpe was served by its own school run with the support of the Earl of Carlisle.(19) This school seems to have closed for a period in the middle of the century, as by 1859 Ganthorpe children were attending Terrington school.(20) It, or another school, had reappeared by 1871 when it was described as a private school attended by 20 children. It is last heard of in 1879 when it was described as a Dame school supported by the Earl Of Carlisle.(21) The school building was probably that cottage in Ganthorpe which was later used as a Roman Catholic chapel.

Social Life

In the early 18th century there was a spa at Terrington which was said to have worked notable cures, especially in rheumatic cases. The spa was visited in 1725 by Edward Harley, 2nd. Earl of Oxford, when he was on a visit to Castle Howard, then being built. He described the spa as an open space dug into the ground, like a grave or sawpit, into which those seeking relief immersed themselves.(22) The Inclosure Award of 1779 shows that the spa was situated in the hollow, marshy ground in the bend of the road from Terrington to Ganthorpe before Broats lane (Grid Ref. 679709).(23) Lack of further references to the spa suggests that its popularity had waned by the end of the 18th century.

Although ale would have been sold in the parish from medieval times, nothing is known of the places of its sale until modern times. In 1621 some persons from Terrington and neighbourhood were presented at Quarter Sessions for keeping common tippling houses without licence but no mention is made of the location of these houses.(24) In the early 19th century there were three public houses in Terrington, the Horse and Jockey (now the Bay Horse), the Black Bull (situated near the present school) and the Cross Keys (opposite the modern Co-operative store).(25) The Horse and Jockey had been renamed the Bay Horse by 1840.(26) These three public houses continued to serve the parish until sometime between 1872 and 1879 when the Black Bull went out of business.(27) By 1890 only the Bay Horse remained. By that date there was also a Temperance Hotel in the parish. This had doubtless been established as a result of the stand taken against alcohol by Rosalind, Countess of Carlisle and lady of the manor.

A Reading Room was established in the village in 1882. This was situated near the Post Office, about midway down the main street on its northern side. It was said to be well used in 1912.(29) In 1926 the former British School was opened as a Village Hall and Reading Room. The Reading Room was supplied with an evening newspaper, but apart from this its reading matter consisted mostly of out-dated novels.(30) The present Village Hall, a large converted mansion at the W. end of the village, was bought by the Village Hall Committee in 1954 and is used for a wide range of communal activities.(31)

Village Customs

Many persons living in the village at the present time can remember, or have heard tell, of the customs which used to be observed in the village on certain special occasions. The origin of such customs is unknown; some may have been of antiquity, others more modern; few, if any, will have been peculiar to Terrington.

As might be expected there were several customs attendant upon marriage. One such was to hold a race in the village street, the newly married couple holding the winning tape (last done about 1910). The blacksmith would sometimes fire the stibby (firing gunpowder on the anvil) to greet the bride and bridegroom (last done about 1926).

Another custom designed to bring luck was the breaking of a plate of cake by the bride (last done about 1930). Two customs which survive are for the children to tie up the church gate to prevent the departure of the bride and groom; and for the groom to throw coppers to distract the children while he cuts his way out.

Until about 1920 garlands used to be made and hung on the outside lintels for May Day. In the early part of the 20th century Miss Mary Egerton gave prizes for the best garlands. On Shrove Tuesday there was a half-day holiday and apprentices and farm-workers would play bat and ball with coloured cloth balls made and sold by the old people of the village. At 11 o'clock the 'pancake bell' - one of the church bells - would be rung by one of the school boys; it was last rung about 1890 by Jack Goodrick. Shuttlecock was also sometimes played on Shrove Tuesday, in a field on the north side of North Back Lane. Until about 1950 the children used to mix Spanish (liquorice) and water on Ascension Day and would roll bottles filled with this mixture down the hill in Coombe Field, near the cemetery in Stock Lane. On Easter Monday the children would similarly roll hard boiled eggs, while the New Year was always greeted with the playing of the village band.

From at least the mid-19th century Terrington Feast was an occasion of festivity. This was the Club Feast of the Oddfellows, held on the Monday following Low Sunday. This feast became the excuse for a school holiday and for horse racing on Freers Moor. This was followed on the next day by a horse show and cricket match. Latterly the horse racing was held in Vesters Pasture, Mowthorpe, until about 1880 when the practice ended.

One duty of the publican was to duck a stranger in the Marr - the village pond which was on the southern side of the main street - until the stranger 'paid his footing' - presumably some small sum of money for entering the village. In cases of adultery the effigy of the guilty man was placed on a waggon and burnt before his door, while the villagers sang a song beginning with the words 'Rang'a-dang, dang, Now we ride the stang'. it was thought that this rite was last performed about 1890.

The writer would like to thank the people of Terrington who provided this information, and to thank all those persons, both parishioners and others, who helped in the writing of this 'History'. The villagers showed great interest in the work and were both informative and welcoming — to them this paper is offered.


1. Ter. Par. Chest, note by J.C. Cox from a Lambeth Palace MS.

2. Abp. Herring's Vstn. iii. (Y.A.S.R.S. 75), 160-1.

3. Digest of Returns to Select Cttee. on Educ. of Poor, H.C.224 (1819) ix (2); Char. Com. Rep. (1823), viii. 722-3.

4. Char. Com. Rep. (1823), viii. 722-3.

5. Baines Dir. N.R., (1823).

6. Educ. Enquiry Abstract, H.C. 66 (1531), xliii.

7. Bulmer's Dir. N.R. (1890).

8. School Log Bk 1 p151; Yorks. Herald, 25 April. 1890.

9. Church Note Bk, p.74; School Log Bk, 1, pp. 202, 208.

10. Return of Schools, 1893 (c 7529) H.C.—(1894); Kelly's Dir. N.R. (1893); School Log Bk. 2, pp. 3, 8.

11. School Log, Bk. 2, p.33.

12. Ibid. pp. 75, 80.

13. Ibid. p.I04.

14. Church Note Bk. p.74.

15. Return of Schools, 1893 (c 7529) H.C.—(1894); Kelly's Dir. N.R. (1893).

16. Kelly's Dir. N.R. (1897).

17. Church Note Bk. pp. 71, 73; Castle Howard Muniments, Box 20, bundle 152.

18. ex inf. the Headmaster.

19. Educ. Enquiry Abstract, H.C. 62 (1835), xliii.

20. T. Whellan, Hist. York and N.R. (1859), ii. 643.4.

21. Returns relating to Elementary Education, H.C. 201 (1871) iv.; Kelly's Dir. N.R. (1879).

22. The Dalesman, December 1961, p.678.

23. Inc. Award, Castle Howard Muniments, Box 12, bundle 102.

24. N.R. Recs. iii. 113.

25. Baines Dir. N.R. (1893)

26. White's Dir. N.R. (1840)

27. Kelly's Dir. N.R. (1872), (1879)

28. Bulmer's Dir. N.R. (1890)

29. Ibid.; Yorks. Gaz. 18 May 1912.

30. Church Note Bk., p.73; ex inf. Rev. T. W. Edwards.

31. Church Note Bk. (1954).


bovate — one eighth of a carucate

carucate — ploughland (assessed for taxation); roughly the amount of land an eight-ox plough team could plough in a year, thus about 160-180a.

extent — description of an estate, giving the monetary values of land, animals, rents, etc.

free warren — hunting rights over specified lands.

messuage — a portion of land occupied as a site for a dwelling-house.

serjeanty — the holding of land in return for a specific service to the lord.

socland — land dependant on a manor, usually not the manor in the immediate area. The land was occupied by socmen who normally owed suit to court and paid rent to the soc manor.

toft — the site of a house and its outbuildings.


Record Publications

Cal. Close — Calendar of Close Rolls

Cal. Pat. — Calendar of Patent Rolls

Cal. Fine R. — Calendar of Fine Rolls

Cal. lnq. p.m. — Calendar of Inquisitions Post Mortem

Cal. Inq. Hen. VII — Calendar of Inquisitions Post Mortem, Second Series

Feud. Aids — Feudal Aids

Cal. Papal Regs. — Calendar of Papal Registers

Close R. — Close Roll

Publications of the Record Commissioners (Rec. Com.)

Abbrev. Rot. Orig. — Rotulorum Originalium in Curia Scaccarii Abbreviatio, Henry III—Edward III

Valor Eccl. — Valor Ecclesiasticus

Cal. Rot. Chart. — Calendarium Rotulorum Chartarum (John— Edward IV), etc.

Other Printed Sources

Var. Coll. (Hist. MSS. Com.) — Various Collections (Historical Manuscripts Commission)

Terrington Par. Reg. (Par. Reg. Soc.) — Terrington Parish Registers (Parish Registers Society)

Char. Com. Rep. — Charity Commissioners' Report

N.R. Recs. — North Riding Records

Pipe R. (P.R.S.) — Pipe Roll (Pipe Roll Society)

Sur. Soc. — Surtees Society

Y.A.S.R.S. — Yorkshire Archaeological Society, Record Series

Y.A.J. — Yorkshire Archaeological Journal

V.C.H. — Victoria County History

OS. Map — Ordnance Survey Map

Dir. N.R. — Directory of the North Riding

Guide to Manuscript Sources

Y.A.S., V.C.H, N.R. slips — Victoria County History, North Riding research slips at the Yorkshire Archaeological Society, Leeds.

P.R.O. — Public Record Office

Y.A.S. — Yorkshire Archaeological Society, Leeds

York Dioc. Regy. (St. Ant. Hall) — York Diocesan Registry (St Anthony's Hall)

B.M. — British Museum

H.C. - House of Commons

School Log Bk. — School Log Book in the care of the Headmistress of Terrington Church School

Church Note Bk. — Terrington Church Note Book in the parish chest

APPENDIX A: Rectors of Terrington. Yorkshire

See the list of rectors in Rectors and Rectories page.

APPENDIX B: Terrington in 1964

Co-operative Stores Manager: W. Fairburn
General Stores H. C. Rhodes
Butcher S. Lealman
Post Office: Post master C. Farmer
Postmen H. Freer, W. Miller
Milk retailers Mr. and Mrs. G. Upex
The Bay Horse Inn C. Atkinson
Petrol Pump W. Goodwill
Builders G. Craven, G. Goodwill and S. Goodwill.
Mason F. T. Wilson
Joiners and Undertakers W. W. Goodrick and H. Hammond
Joiners and Decorators R. Armitage and N. Ramsey
Agricultural Engineer F. Scaling
Bus and Taxi Proprietors H. and S. Hope
Haulage Contractors F. Benson and P. Hayward
Lime Contractor L. Nattrass
Pest Officer F. Green
Council Length Man A. Fuguill
Police P.C. J. Court
Pheasantry Manager: A. Simpson
Rector: - All Saints Church Rev, W. Beswick, instituted June 10th, 1964, by the Lord Archbishop of York (Dr. Donald Coggan), patron of the living, and inducted by the Archdeacon of Cleveland (Ven. W. Palin)
Rector's Warden W. Hope
People's Warden W. Carbutt
Church Organists Mrs. A. Walker and Mrs. N. Hornsey
Chapel Stewards G. Craven and H. Freer
Church of England Day School 16 pupils. Headmistress: Mrs. D. Fletcher
Boys' Preparatory School 95 pupils. Headmaster: P. G. A. Clementson
Schoolmasters D Hardman; J. Robinson; D. Sharpe; J. Sudbury; B. Sunderland
Oldest Inhabitants Mrs. J. Rank (87); and Miss H. Wilkinson (87)
Farmers. Terrington J. Atkinson, Thorn House Farm;
R. Barker, Flat Top;
T. Bickers, Mowthorpe Hill;
R. Cooper, Cotril Farm;
G. Craven, Home Farm, Wiganthorpe;
E. Foster, The Manor Farm;
F. Goodwill, Southwood Farm;
K. Goodwill, West Moor Farm;
R. Goodwill, Goodlands;
B. Hall, Primrose Hill Farm;
W. Henley, Round Hill Farm;
T. Murray, Birkdale Farm;
E. Rank, Cliff House Farm;
S.H. Rank, Prospect Farm;
T. Rank, Highfield House;
J. Rogers, Rose Cottage;
G. Upex, The Smithy Farm;
W.B. Vester, Rough Hills Farm;
G. Wood, Flat Top Farm;
Farmers. Ganthorpe Miss Fargher, The Paddocks;
W. Hutchinson, Manor Farm;
T. Miller, Gate Farm;
P. Ruddock, Ganthorpe Farm.

Parochial Church Council
Chairman Rev. W Beswick, Secretary P. Clementson, Treasurer K. Hardcastle

Village Hall Committee
Chairman H. Hope, Secretary J. S. Sudbury, Treasurer P. Clementson

The Cliff Social Club
Chairman J. Boggitt, Secretary W. Craven, Treasurer W. Fairburn

Womens' Institute
President Mrs W. Fairburn, Secretary Mrs. Smurthwaite, Treasurer Mrs. Armitage

Mothers' Union
Chairman Mrs. Beswick, Secretary Mrs. G. Goodwill, Treasurer Mrs. Beswick

Youth Club
Chairman E. Hope, Secretary Miss D. Hope, Treasurer Miss E. Hope

Drama Group
Chairman B. Sunderland, Secretary Mrs. S. Goodwill, Treasurer Mrs. W. Fairburn

Over 60s Club
Chairman C. Atkinson, Secretary H. Hope, Treasurer Mrs. D. Fletcher

Bowls Club
G. Upex (Capt.), Secretary F. T. Wilson

Cricket Club
N. Hornsey (Capt.), Secretary J. Murray

Tennis Club
Secretary Miss F. Hornsey

Rural District Council Representatives:
Rev. W. Beswick and W. Craven.

Parish Council:
G. Goodwill, S. Hope, J. Kirk, J.S. Sudbury, W. B. Vester.

Burial Board:
All Parish Councillors and W. Goodrick.

APPENDIX C: Map of Terrington Fields

Map of Terrington Open Fields

©Terrington Village Hall & Terrington Arts
This page last updated: 21st December 2021

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